ASUS Motherboard PRIME X570-PRO AMD AM4 Ryzen X570 Max.128GB DDR4 ATX Retail
Review: 5 - "A masterpiece of literature" by , written on May 4, 20020
Great

ASUS Motherboard PRIME X570-PRO AMD AM4 Ryzen X570 Max.128GB DDR4 ATX Retail

Available:In Stock
$445.61
Image
AMD AM4 ATX motherboard with PCIe 4.0, 14 DrMOS power stages, DDR4 4400MHz, dual M.2, HDMI, SATA 6Gb/s, USB 3.2 Gen 2 front-panel connector and Aura Sync RGB lighting
AMD AM4 Socket: Ready for 3rd and 2nd Gen AMD Ryzen processors
Enhanced power solution: 12+2 DrMOS power stages, ProCool connectors, alloy chokes and durable capacitors for stable power delivery
5-Way Optimization: One-click, system-wide tuning delivers optimized overclocks and intelligent cooling for CPU or GPU-intensive tasks
Industry-leading cooling options: Comprehensive controls for fans and dual pump headers, via Fan Xpert 4 or the acclaimed UEFI
M.2 heatsink: Ultra-efficient heatsink reduces M.2 SSD temperature for unthrottled transfer speeds and enhanced reliability
ASUS OptiMem: Careful routing of traces and vias to preserve signal integrity for improved memory overclocking
Next-gen connectivity: Supreme flexibility with PCIe 4.0, dual M.2, USB 3.2 Gen 2 ports and front-panel header
Aura Sync RGB: Synchronize LED lighting with a vast portfolio of compatible PC gear, including next-gen addressable RGB strips

CPU
AMD AM4 Socket 3rd and 2nd AMD Ryzen/2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
Refer to www.asus.com for CPU support list
Due to CPU limitation, CPU cores supported varies by processors.
Chipset
AMD X570
Memory
3rd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
4 x DIMM, Max. 128GB, DDR4 4400(O.C)/4266(O.C.)/4133(O.C.)/4000(O.C.)/3866(O.C.)/3733(O.C.)/3600(O.C.)/3466(O.C.)/3400(O.C.)/3200/3000/2933/2800/2666/2400/2133 MHz Un-buffered Memory
2nd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
4 x DIMM, Max. 128GB, DDR4 3600(O.C.)/3466(O.C.)/3400(O.C.)/3200(O.C.)/3000(O.C.)/2933/2800/2666/2400/2133 MHz Un-buffered Memory
2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
4 x DIMM, Max. 128GB, DDR4 3200(O.C.)/3000(O.C.)/2933/2800/2666/2400/2133 MHz Un-buffered Memory
Dual Channel Memory Architecture
ECC Memory (ECC mode) support varies by CPU.
Refer to www.asus.com for the Memory QVL (Qualified Vendors Lists).
The maximum memory capacity supported vary depending on the CPU you installed.
Graphic
Integrated Graphics in the 2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
Multi-VGA output support : HDMI/DisplayPort ports
- Supports HDMI 2.0b with maximum resolution of 4096 x 2160 at 60 Hz
- Supports DisplayPort 1.2 with max. resolution 4096 x 2160 at 60 Hz
Multi-GPU Support
3rd and 2nd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
Supports NVIDIA 2-Way SLI Technology
Supports AMD 3-Way CrossFireX Technology
2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
Supports AMD 2-Way CrossFireX Technology
Expansion Slots
3rd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
2 x PCIe 4.0 x16 (x16 or dual x8)
2nd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
2 x PCIe 3.0 x16 (x16 or dual x8)
2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
1 x PCIe 3.0 x16 (x8 mode)
AMD X570 chipset
1 x PCIe 4.0 x16 (max at x4 mode)
3 x PCIe 4.0 x1
Storage
3rd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors :
1 x M.2_1 socket 3, with M Key, Type 2242/2260/2280/22110(PCIE 4.0 x4 and SATA modes) storage devices support
2nd Gen AMD Ryzen/2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors :
1 x M.2_1 socket 3, with M Key, Type 2242/2260/2280/22110(PCIE 3.0 x4 and SATA modes) storage devices support
AMD X570 chipset :
1 x M.2_2 socket 3, with M Key, Type 2242/2260/2280/22110(PCIE 4.0 x4 and SATA modes) storage devices support
6 x SATA 6Gb/s port(s)
Support Raid 0, 1, 10
LAN
Intel I211-AT
ASUS LAN Guard
Audio
Realtek S1220A 8-Channel High Definition Audio CODEC featuring Crystal Sound 3
- Impedance sense for front and rear headphone outputs
- Internal audio Amplifier to enhance the highest quality sound for headphone and speakers
- Supports : Jack-detection, Multi-streaming, Front Panel Jack-retasking
- High quality 120 dB SNR stereo playback output and 113 dB SNR recording input (Line-in)
- Front panel audio connector (AAFP)
- Supports up to 32-Bit/192kHz playback
Audio Feature :
- Optical S/PDIF out port(s) at back panel
- Audio Shielding: Ensures precision analog/digital separation and greatly reduced multi-lateral interference
- Dedicated audio PCB layers: Separate layers for left and right channels to guard the quality of the sensitive audio signals
- Premium Japanese-made audio capacitors: Provide warm, natural and immersive sound with exceptional clarity and fidelity
- EMI protection cover to prevent electrical noise to affect the amplifier quality
Due to limitations in HDA bandwidth, 32-Bit/192kHz is not supported for 8-Channel audio.
USB Ports
3rd and 2nd Gen AMD Ryzen/2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors :
4 x USB 3.2 Gen 1 port(s) (4 at back panel, blue, Type-A)
AMD X570 chipset :
1 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 front panel connector port(s)
AMD X570 chipset :
4 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 port(s) (4 at back panel, teal blue, 3 x Type-A+1 x Type-C)
AMD X570 chipset :
2 x USB 3.2 Gen 1 port(s) (2 at mid-board)
AMD X570 chipset :
4 x USB 2.0 port(s) (4 at mid-board)
Special Features
5-Way Optimization by Dual Intelligent Processors 5
- 5-Way Optimization tuning key perfectly consolidates TPU Insight, EPU Guidance, DIGI+ VRM, Fan Expert 4, and Turbo App
DIGI+ VRM: Digital power design with Dr. MOS
EPU Guidance
TPU Insight
Fan Xpert4
- Fan Xpert 4 featuring Fan Auto Tuning function and multiple thermistors selection for optimized system cooling control
Turbo App: system performance tuning, network priority, and audio scene configuration for selected applications.
ASUS 5X Protection III :
- ASUS SafeSlot Core: Fortified PCIe Slot prevents damage
- ASUS LANGuard: Protects against LAN surges, lightning strikes and static-electricity discharges
- ASUS Overvoltage Protection: World-class circuit-protecting power design
- ASUS Stainless-Steel Back I/O: 3X corrosion-resistance for greater durability
- ASUS DIGI+ VRM - Digital power design with Dr. MOS
- ASUS Enhanced DRAM Overcurrent Protection - Short circuit damage prevention
- ASUS ESD Guards - Enhanced ESD protection
ASUS SafeSlot - Protect your graphics card Investment
ASUS OptiMem
- Improved DDR4 Stability
AURA :
- Aura Lighting Control
- Aura RGB Strip Headers
- Addressable Gen 2 Header
ASUS Exclusive Features :
- AI Suite 3
- Ai Charger
- Turbo LAN
- Armoury Crate
- Pre-mounted I/O Shield
ASUS Quiet Thermal Solution :
- Stylish Design: MOS Heat-sink with dual thermal pads design, PCH Fan, PCH and M.2 Heatsink
- ASUS Fan Xpert 4
ASUS EZ DIY :
- ASUS CrashFree BIOS 3
- ASUS EZ Flash 3
- ASUS UEFI BIOS EZ Mode
ASUS Q-Design :
- ASUS Q-LED (CPU, DRAM, VGA, Boot Device LED)
- ASUS Q-Slot
- ASUS Q-DIMM
- ASUS Q-Connector
Back I/O Ports
1 x PS/2 keyboard/mouse combo port(s)
1 x DisplayPort
1 x HDMI
1 x LAN (RJ45) port(s)
1 x Optical S/PDIF out
5 x Audio jack(s)
4 x USB 3.2 Gen 1 (up to 5Gbps) ports Type-A
3 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 (up to 10Gbps) ports (Type-A)
1 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 (up to 10Gbps) ports (Type-C)
Internal I/O Ports
2 x Aura RGB Strip Headers
1 x Addressable Gen 2 header(s)
2 x USB 2.0 connector(s) support(s) additional 4 USB 2.0 port(s)
2 x M.2 Socket 3 with M Key, type 2242/2260/2280/22110 storage devices support (SATA mode and PCIE mode)
1 x SPI TPM header
1 x COM port(s) connector(s)
6 x SATA 6Gb/s connector(s)
1 x CPU Fan connector(s) (1 x 4 -pin)
1 x CPU OPT Fan connector(s) (1 x 4 -pin)
3 x Chassis Fan connector(s) (3 x 4 -pin)
1 x PCH_FAN (1 x 4 -pin)
1 x AIO_PUMP connector (1 x 4 -pin)
1 x 24-pin EATX Power connector(s)
1 x 8-pin ATX 12V Power connector(s)
1 x 4-pin ATX 12V Power connector(s)
1 x Front panel audio connector(s) (AAFP)
1 x System panel(s)
1 x Power-on button(s)
1 x Clear CMOS jumper(s)
1 x Node Connector(s)
1 x Water Pump header (4-pin)
1 x T_Sensor Connector
1 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 (up to 10Gbps) connector
1 x USB 3.2 Gen 1 (up to 5Gbps) connector support additional 2 USB ports
Accessories
Users manual
2 x SATA 6Gb/s cable(s)
1 x M.2 Screw Package
1 x Supporting DVD
1 x Q-connector(s) (1 in 1)
1 x Extension cable for Addressable LED
BIOS
256 Mb Flash ROM, UEFI AMI BIOS, PnP, SM BIOS 3.2, ACPI 6.2, Multi-language BIOS, ASUS EZ Flash 3, CrashFree BIOS 3, F11 EZ Tuning Wizard, F6 Qfan Control, F3 My Favorites, Last Modified log, F12 PrintScreen,F4 AURA ON/OFF, F9 Search and ASUS DRAM SPD (Serial Presence Detect) memory information
Operating System
Windows 10 64-bit
Form Factor
ATX Form Factor
12.0 inch x 9.6 inch ( 30.5 cm x 24.4 cm )
Item Dimension (L"xW"xH")
14 x 11 x 3

Weight
4 lbs

Warranty Information
3 Year Warranty
AMD AM4 ATX motherboard with PCIe 4.0, 14 DrMOS power stages, DDR4 4400MHz, dual M.2, HDMI, SATA 6Gb/s, USB 3.2 Gen 2 front-panel connector and Aura Sync RGB lighting
AMD AM4 Socket: Ready for 3rd and 2nd Gen AMD Ryzen processors
Enhanced power solution: 12+2 DrMOS power stages, ProCool connectors, alloy chokes and durable capacitors for stable power delivery
5-Way Optimization: One-click, system-wide tuning delivers optimized overclocks and intelligent cooling for CPU or GPU-intensive tasks
Industry-leading cooling options: Comprehensive controls for fans and dual pump headers, via Fan Xpert 4 or the acclaimed UEFI
M.2 heatsink: Ultra-efficient heatsink reduces M.2 SSD temperature for unthrottled transfer speeds and enhanced reliability
ASUS OptiMem: Careful routing of traces and vias to preserve signal integrity for improved memory overclocking
Next-gen connectivity: Supreme flexibility with PCIe 4.0, dual M.2, USB 3.2 Gen 2 ports and front-panel header
Aura Sync RGB: Synchronize LED lighting with a vast portfolio of compatible PC gear, including next-gen addressable RGB strips

CPU
AMD AM4 Socket 3rd and 2nd AMD Ryzen/2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
Refer to www.asus.com for CPU support list
Due to CPU limitation, CPU cores supported varies by processors.
Chipset
AMD X570
Memory
3rd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
4 x DIMM, Max. 128GB, DDR4 4400(O.C)/4266(O.C.)/4133(O.C.)/4000(O.C.)/3866(O.C.)/3733(O.C.)/3600(O.C.)/3466(O.C.)/3400(O.C.)/3200/3000/2933/2800/2666/2400/2133 MHz Un-buffered Memory
2nd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
4 x DIMM, Max. 128GB, DDR4 3600(O.C.)/3466(O.C.)/3400(O.C.)/3200(O.C.)/3000(O.C.)/2933/2800/2666/2400/2133 MHz Un-buffered Memory
2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
4 x DIMM, Max. 128GB, DDR4 3200(O.C.)/3000(O.C.)/2933/2800/2666/2400/2133 MHz Un-buffered Memory
Dual Channel Memory Architecture
ECC Memory (ECC mode) support varies by CPU.
Refer to www.asus.com for the Memory QVL (Qualified Vendors Lists).
The maximum memory capacity supported vary depending on the CPU you installed.
Graphic
Integrated Graphics in the 2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
Multi-VGA output support : HDMI/DisplayPort ports
- Supports HDMI 2.0b with maximum resolution of 4096 x 2160 at 60 Hz
- Supports DisplayPort 1.2 with max. resolution 4096 x 2160 at 60 Hz
Multi-GPU Support
3rd and 2nd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
Supports NVIDIA 2-Way SLI Technology
Supports AMD 3-Way CrossFireX Technology
2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
Supports AMD 2-Way CrossFireX Technology
Expansion Slots
3rd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
2 x PCIe 4.0 x16 (x16 or dual x8)
2nd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors
2 x PCIe 3.0 x16 (x16 or dual x8)
2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors
1 x PCIe 3.0 x16 (x8 mode)
AMD X570 chipset
1 x PCIe 4.0 x16 (max at x4 mode)
3 x PCIe 4.0 x1
Storage
3rd Gen AMD Ryzen Processors :
1 x M.2_1 socket 3, with M Key, Type 2242/2260/2280/22110(PCIE 4.0 x4 and SATA modes) storage devices support
2nd Gen AMD Ryzen/2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors :
1 x M.2_1 socket 3, with M Key, Type 2242/2260/2280/22110(PCIE 3.0 x4 and SATA modes) storage devices support
AMD X570 chipset :
1 x M.2_2 socket 3, with M Key, Type 2242/2260/2280/22110(PCIE 4.0 x4 and SATA modes) storage devices support
6 x SATA 6Gb/s port(s)
Support Raid 0, 1, 10
LAN
Intel I211-AT
ASUS LAN Guard
Audio
Realtek S1220A 8-Channel High Definition Audio CODEC featuring Crystal Sound 3
- Impedance sense for front and rear headphone outputs
- Internal audio Amplifier to enhance the highest quality sound for headphone and speakers
- Supports : Jack-detection, Multi-streaming, Front Panel Jack-retasking
- High quality 120 dB SNR stereo playback output and 113 dB SNR recording input (Line-in)
- Front panel audio connector (AAFP)
- Supports up to 32-Bit/192kHz playback
Audio Feature :
- Optical S/PDIF out port(s) at back panel
- Audio Shielding: Ensures precision analog/digital separation and greatly reduced multi-lateral interference
- Dedicated audio PCB layers: Separate layers for left and right channels to guard the quality of the sensitive audio signals
- Premium Japanese-made audio capacitors: Provide warm, natural and immersive sound with exceptional clarity and fidelity
- EMI protection cover to prevent electrical noise to affect the amplifier quality
Due to limitations in HDA bandwidth, 32-Bit/192kHz is not supported for 8-Channel audio.
USB Ports
3rd and 2nd Gen AMD Ryzen/2nd and 1st Gen AMD Ryzen with Radeon Vega Graphics Processors :
4 x USB 3.2 Gen 1 port(s) (4 at back panel, blue, Type-A)
AMD X570 chipset :
1 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 front panel connector port(s)
AMD X570 chipset :
4 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 port(s) (4 at back panel, teal blue, 3 x Type-A+1 x Type-C)
AMD X570 chipset :
2 x USB 3.2 Gen 1 port(s) (2 at mid-board)
AMD X570 chipset :
4 x USB 2.0 port(s) (4 at mid-board)
Special Features
5-Way Optimization by Dual Intelligent Processors 5
- 5-Way Optimization tuning key perfectly consolidates TPU Insight, EPU Guidance, DIGI+ VRM, Fan Expert 4, and Turbo App
DIGI+ VRM: Digital power design with Dr. MOS
EPU Guidance
TPU Insight
Fan Xpert4
- Fan Xpert 4 featuring Fan Auto Tuning function and multiple thermistors selection for optimized system cooling control
Turbo App: system performance tuning, network priority, and audio scene configuration for selected applications.
ASUS 5X Protection III :
- ASUS SafeSlot Core: Fortified PCIe Slot prevents damage
- ASUS LANGuard: Protects against LAN surges, lightning strikes and static-electricity discharges
- ASUS Overvoltage Protection: World-class circuit-protecting power design
- ASUS Stainless-Steel Back I/O: 3X corrosion-resistance for greater durability
- ASUS DIGI+ VRM - Digital power design with Dr. MOS
- ASUS Enhanced DRAM Overcurrent Protection - Short circuit damage prevention
- ASUS ESD Guards - Enhanced ESD protection
ASUS SafeSlot - Protect your graphics card Investment
ASUS OptiMem
- Improved DDR4 Stability
AURA :
- Aura Lighting Control
- Aura RGB Strip Headers
- Addressable Gen 2 Header
ASUS Exclusive Features :
- AI Suite 3
- Ai Charger
- Turbo LAN
- Armoury Crate
- Pre-mounted I/O Shield
ASUS Quiet Thermal Solution :
- Stylish Design: MOS Heat-sink with dual thermal pads design, PCH Fan, PCH and M.2 Heatsink
- ASUS Fan Xpert 4
ASUS EZ DIY :
- ASUS CrashFree BIOS 3
- ASUS EZ Flash 3
- ASUS UEFI BIOS EZ Mode
ASUS Q-Design :
- ASUS Q-LED (CPU, DRAM, VGA, Boot Device LED)
- ASUS Q-Slot
- ASUS Q-DIMM
- ASUS Q-Connector
Back I/O Ports
1 x PS/2 keyboard/mouse combo port(s)
1 x DisplayPort
1 x HDMI
1 x LAN (RJ45) port(s)
1 x Optical S/PDIF out
5 x Audio jack(s)
4 x USB 3.2 Gen 1 (up to 5Gbps) ports Type-A
3 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 (up to 10Gbps) ports (Type-A)
1 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 (up to 10Gbps) ports (Type-C)
Internal I/O Ports
2 x Aura RGB Strip Headers
1 x Addressable Gen 2 header(s)
2 x USB 2.0 connector(s) support(s) additional 4 USB 2.0 port(s)
2 x M.2 Socket 3 with M Key, type 2242/2260/2280/22110 storage devices support (SATA mode and PCIE mode)
1 x SPI TPM header
1 x COM port(s) connector(s)
6 x SATA 6Gb/s connector(s)
1 x CPU Fan connector(s) (1 x 4 -pin)
1 x CPU OPT Fan connector(s) (1 x 4 -pin)
3 x Chassis Fan connector(s) (3 x 4 -pin)
1 x PCH_FAN (1 x 4 -pin)
1 x AIO_PUMP connector (1 x 4 -pin)
1 x 24-pin EATX Power connector(s)
1 x 8-pin ATX 12V Power connector(s)
1 x 4-pin ATX 12V Power connector(s)
1 x Front panel audio connector(s) (AAFP)
1 x System panel(s)
1 x Power-on button(s)
1 x Clear CMOS jumper(s)
1 x Node Connector(s)
1 x Water Pump header (4-pin)
1 x T_Sensor Connector
1 x USB 3.2 Gen 2 (up to 10Gbps) connector
1 x USB 3.2 Gen 1 (up to 5Gbps) connector support additional 2 USB ports
Accessories
Users manual
2 x SATA 6Gb/s cable(s)
1 x M.2 Screw Package
1 x Supporting DVD
1 x Q-connector(s) (1 in 1)
1 x Extension cable for Addressable LED
BIOS
256 Mb Flash ROM, UEFI AMI BIOS, PnP, SM BIOS 3.2, ACPI 6.2, Multi-language BIOS, ASUS EZ Flash 3, CrashFree BIOS 3, F11 EZ Tuning Wizard, F6 Qfan Control, F3 My Favorites, Last Modified log, F12 PrintScreen,F4 AURA ON/OFF, F9 Search and ASUS DRAM SPD (Serial Presence Detect) memory information
Operating System
Windows 10 64-bit
Form Factor
ATX Form Factor
12.0 inch x 9.6 inch ( 30.5 cm x 24.4 cm )
Item Dimension (L"xW"xH")
14 x 11 x 3

Weight
4 lbs

Warranty Information
3 Year Warranty

Return Policy : Our top priority at Fazter is to provide our customers with quality products and 24/7 customer support. For us, Customer satisfaction is the topmost priority. If any customer is not completely satisfied with the product they received, they can quickly return an unopened brand new product within 20 days of delivery.

If the customer receives a defective product, it can be replaced within 3-4 days from delivery. We will credit or exchange after receiving RMA (Return Merchandise Authorisation Number). 

Refund :We will refund the full amount if there is something wrong from our end during shipment or else there will be a deduction of 20% as a restocking fee. Also, you will have to apply for RMA# within 3-4 days under defective product and 20 days for unopened box. For any refund, customer will have to pay shipping charges while sending back to our supplier. 

We will give you a confirmation within 2-3 days after receiving your complaint. Refunds may take up to 30 days, depending on the warehouses but generally, it won’t take more than a week or so. 

Replacement :If you require a product replacement due to damage or shipping error, we will be sending you a replaced product. If you want to exchange products for another, we will be issuing a credit that can be used for the exchange.  

T&C- *All returned merchandise must be in its original packaging conditions and accessories. We reserve the right to deny the request for return or exchange if it is not returned with all related accessories and proper conditions. 

Broken/Damaged/Defective Products:Please ensure that the product quality is accurate and if there is any damage from our end, contact us immediately within seven days of delivery. We’ll be replacing it.  

Restocking Fee :20% will be deducted from the amount made for purchasing the product if the damage or any defect is not from the supplier’s end. 

Contact us before sending any item back to us. 

Types of Returns :

Unwanted -You will get a refund of the product's cost if there is any fault from our end only after complete verification of the customer’s information. 

Returned to Sender -You will get a refund of the product’s cost, but shipping charges will be deducted. 

Lost in Transit-If any product gets lost during shipment, we will initiate a claim with the carrier; if the item is found/delivered to the customer, the request will be closed. If there was insurance on the order and the page approves the claim, you will receive a full refund.  

Defective -You will get a replacement for the defective product, or you can also request a complete refund. In both cases, the customer must apply within 3-4 days after receiving the order and submitting all information. Then, we will analyze and confirm in 2-3 business days.   

Damaged -Damaged product must be reported within seven days of delivery, and we will initiate a damage claim with the carrier. The customer must prove the damage (usually photo(s)) to submit the request. You will receive a refund just after the claim will get approved. 

Missing Part(s) -In most cases, we will get the warehouse to send the missing part(s). 

Not as Described -If you receive a different product, you will receive a refund after inspection. 

Shipping Labels -Buyers have to pay return shipping; in some cases, we may send return labels. 

Non returnable items-Include software, Cloud, or non-physical products.